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What instruments are used to measure components of weather?

The daily conditions of the atmosphere at a particular place with numerous climatic factors such as humidity, temperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc. is called the weather of that particular place.  It is a portion of the natural cycle that maintains the equilibrium in the atmosphere. The weather of a place can be sunny, rainy, cloudy, stormy or clear. The weather of a place depends on its altitude, latitude and various factors. This article will highlight various instruments that are involved in measuring different components of weather.


The humidity of a place is described as the amount of moisture present in the air and it is measured by using a Hygrometer. The psychrometer distinguishes the difference in temperature between a dry and a wet thermometer bulb to identify humidity. It is made up of two thermometers that are identical.  The thermometer is cooled down by the simple chemistry process called evaporation. The process of evaporation and cooling rely on the dryness of air at a given temperature. 


Wind can be defined as the movement of air from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area. An air movement having both direction and speed is called wind. An anemometer is an instrument used to measure the speed of the wind. The instrument is used to measure the flow, direction and pressure of the wind. 


Rain is described as the liquid precipitation that falls from clouds as drops of 0.5 millimetres in diameter or large in a particular area or region. The rain gauge is used to measure the rainfall. The alternative names of rain gauge are Omreometer or Puliometer. The instrument measures the units in millimetres or centimetres.

Temperature of place

The temperature of a place determines the weather conditions of that place. The temperature depicts if the place is sunny or cold. The temperature of a place is measured using a basic instrument called a Thermometer. The highest and lowest temperature of a place is measured using a  special thermometer known as the Maximum Minimum Thermometer (MMT). These thermometers tell us the maximum temperature and minimum temperature of that place. Thermometers are also used in specific methods and techniques to measure the thermal conductivity of materials. 


Precipitation is a term that includes all of the forms in which water that falls to earth from the atmosphere. This may include rain, snow, sleet and hail. The measuring of rainfall and other precipitation related parameters in remote and unattended locations is done by a specialised instrument called tipping bucket rain gauge. A tipping bucket is an instrument used to measure precipitation.

Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted on the Earth’s surface by the column of air above the Earth. Atmospheric pressure is created by the weight of air above the Earth’s surface. We can measure atmospheric pressure using a barometer. The barometer can be defined as an instrument that is used to measure the air pressure as it varies with distance ranging between above and below sea level. 

The weather of the place can be determined and estimated by the instruments that are mentioned here. The day to day weather is reported by meteorologists and these reports are preserved for years. The pattern of the weather is estimated with the help of these reports. The average weather design brought over a long time is called the climate of the place.